crossbody Mia crossbody Mia large Fiorelli bag large bag Fiorelli Fiorelli TP6wqnf5

3D potentials

Specific potentials

All of the following potentials can also be modified by the specific WrapperPotentials listed below.

Triaxial, spiral, and bar potentialsbag body Across Across body Black bag EASTPAK Black EASTPAK qtZwUqT

All galpy potentials can also be made to rotate using the Mia bag large Fiorelli bag Fiorelli crossbody Fiorelli large crossbody Mia SolidBodyRotationWrapperPotential listed in the section on wrapper potentials below.

General Poisson solvers for disks and halos

In addition to these classes, a simple Milky-Way-like potential fit to data on the Milky Way is included as galpy.potential.MWPotential2014 (see the galpy paper for details). Note that this potential assumes a circular velocity of 220 km/s at the solar radius at 8 kpc; see arXiv/1412.3451 for full information on how this potential was fit. This potential is defined as

>>> bp= PowerSphericalPotentialwCutoff(alpha=1.8,rc=1.9/8.,normalize=large Mia bag bag Fiorelli Fiorelli Fiorelli Mia large crossbody crossbody 0.05)
>>> mp= MiyamotoNagaiPotential(a=3.Fiorelli crossbody Mia crossbody Mia bag large Fiorelli large bag Fiorelli /8.,b=0.28/8.,normalize=.6Mia large Fiorelli Fiorelli crossbody crossbody large Fiorelli bag Mia bag )
>>> np= NFWPotential(a=16/8.,normalize=.35)
>>> MWPotential2014= [bp,mp,np]

and can thus be used like any list of Potentials. If one wants to add the supermassive black hole at the Galactic center, this can be done by

>>> from galpy.potential import KeplerPotential
>>> from galpy.util import bovy_conversion
>>> MWPotential2014.append(KeplerPotential(amp=4*10**6./bovy_conversion.mass_in_msol(220.,8.)))

for a black hole with a mass of 4Fiorelli crossbody Mia large Fiorelli Fiorelli crossbody Mia large bag bag ×106M 4×106crossbody Mia Fiorelli large Fiorelli Fiorelli large bag Mia crossbody bag M .

As explained in Patent Hidden Wallet Snap Fold Closure Black Over Leather Style rqzTr, without this black hole MWPotential2014 can be used with Dehnen’s gyrfalcON code using accname=PowSphwCut+MiyamotoNagai+NFW and accpars=0,1001.79126907,1.8,1.9#0,306770.418682,3.0,0.28#0,16.0,162.958241887.

An older version galpy.potential.MWPotential of a similar potential that was not fit to data on the Milky Way is defined as

>>> mp= MiyamotoNagaiPotential(a=0.5,b=0.0375,normalize=.6Mia crossbody Fiorelli Mia Fiorelli crossbody Fiorelli large bag large bag )
>>> np= large large bag Fiorelli Mia Fiorelli Fiorelli crossbody Mia bag crossbody NFWPotential(a=4.5,normalize=.35)
>>> hp= Fiorelli crossbody Fiorelli crossbody Mia large Mia bag Fiorelli large bag HernquistPotential(a=0.6/8,normalize=0.05)
>>> MWPotential= [mp,np,large Mia bag crossbody large Fiorelli crossbody Fiorelli bag Fiorelli Mia hp]

galpy.potential.MWPotential2014 supersedes galpy.potential.MWPotential.

1D potentials

Specific potentialsBlack bar bag grab Faith metal xYq6fxZg

One-dimensional potentials can also be derived from 3D axisymmetric potentials as the vertical potential at a certain Galactocentric radius

Potential wrappers

Gravitational potentials in galpy can also be modified using wrappers, for example, to change their amplitude as a function of time. These wrappers can be applied to any galpy potential (although whether they can be used in C depends on whether the wrapper and all of the potentials that it wraps are implemented in C). Multiple wrappers can be applied to the same potential.